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Thread: The Aeneid

  1. #11
    Join Date
    Jan 2015
    Tara Hill in Ir-land was very important to the worldwide culture hidden by the myths of Atlantis. Tara is a name for places near Croton or Bruttium, and Australia for reasons you should all know.

    The expertise and advancement of the evolution of man and his culture is evident in one area only - that of propaganda and lying. They have learned how to suck and blow simultaneously out of every orifice of their bodies. Deceit, black ops (e.g. Kennewick Man), 'hide the ball' (e.g. the confusing array of Pyramid explanations) and secret agencies of advanced skill and esoteric expertise in all social structures that allow us to be 'managed'. JFK, Watergate, Iran/Contra or Ritalin, the program has a repeating plot that is rife with immorality and it’s ever-present greed. The maze the Minotaur went through on Crete is reproduced near Glastonbury (or vice versa like Karnac and Carnac) and it is harder to get through the maze these 'social engineers' create or are still trying to create.

    There may have been a time when the Romish plotters had a bet with their allies in Britain over who eradicated their assigned enemy first. Most people are aware of the 'Flagellants' and the Holocaust or Inquisitions against the heretical Jews. There are few who know the Irish were almost successfully eliminated and had disappeared into the bogs so the English couldn't find them. The Mayans did the same thing with the Spanish and no doubt lots of others have sought to blend in with the environment in order to avoid such persecution by becoming 'conversos' in public. Bede was probably not the first (Eusebius and others were re-writing and plagiarizing) English historian to jump all over the Irish. Hume was a great historian in this tradition of debauched prejudice too. Here is a letter from him congratulating another conspirator in this continuing plot.

    "I see you entertain a great doubt with regard to the authenticity of the poems of Ossian. You are certainly right in so doing. It is indeed strange that any men of sense could have imagined it possible, that above twenty thousand verses along with numberless historical, could have been preserved by oral tradition {Lies on paper are more easily maintained or referred back to.} during fifty generations, by the rudest, perhaps of all European nations, the most necessitous, the most turbulent, and the most unsettled. Where a supposition is so contrary to common sense, any positive evidence of it ought never to be regarded. Men run with great avidity to give their evidence in favour of what flatters their passions and their national prejudices. You are therefore over and above indulgent to us in speaking of the matter with hesitation." (2)
    Yes, ego of men and their need to flatter their national prejudices are a fact of life, and not just with 'verbal tradition'. In many ways the ancient egalitarian peoples had less political and social reasons to lie, and they supported equality between all people. The Englishman who wrote this could be one of those arrogant even shockingly self-centered blankity-blanks who think God is his right hand man. The author of this letter was regarded by Edward Gibbon (who wrote the 'Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire') as England's greatest historian. He is David Hume and his intellectual progeny and fallout are directly connected to the far less but just as influentially prejudicial words of the great Encyclopedia. This letter is a masterwork of insipid prejudice and a deceit of monumental proportions.

    We know for a fact that Hume is speaking the kind of vile invective that allowed Gibbon's friend Lord Sheffield to benefit so much from the rape of Ireland. Sheffield was a paid off absentee landowner and key political player in Britain's impoverishment of Ireland. This buying of support by giving lands in other nations claimed by 'Divine' or other debatable 'Right' has a long history in European monarchistic management. These authors of hatred and war, prejudice and ignorance, have unclean hands and obvious conflicts of interest. They were called the cause of the Rwandan genocide of the last decade in lock-step and clear order as Number one and two criminals. Number one was the Catholic Church and then the Anglican. They are not separate from their government or secular authority as the recent Canadian court awards make evident. The Catholic request for government to make payment with them for the billions they owe the Indians or the insurance companies the government works with that are paying up are all part of the menagerie.

    Sein Fein was the name of a cultural revival newspaper and society began by Prof. MacManus and others. Now it is a guerilla or terrorist organization. Why do the Irish fight amongst themselves and believe in Catholicism (south or Eire) that practices the same usages as the English Anglican Church? Why is the Protestant North that feigns to abhor those usages engaged in fighting for the English? The English gave them their land and brought them there from Scotland, while making trade and taxation deals with them to ensure they remained loyal and prospered. Is the church promoting hatred and divisiveness? Sure it isn't engaged in secular matters, what with the separation of church and state and all that kind of fiction!

    "Naturally, of course, the first thing that people in power should do, for a country facing starvation, was to forbid the export of foodstuff from Ireland. But, as Englishmen, having this source of supply cut off, would then have to pay a higher price for their corn, the British Government, 'could not interfere with the natural course of trade'. 'But' the Viceroy Lord Heytesbury, reassured the dying ones, 'there is no cause for alarm-the Government is carefully watching the course of events!" (5)

    What a wonderfully careful Government it was, too. The movie Far and Away portrays a little of the situation and Michael Collins with Liam Neeson states there had been 700 years of war in its opening scroll. The English sent scientists to discover the effects of blight on potato crops as well as the effects of starvation on people, despite their lesser 'civilized' nature. They didn't even return a reasonable portion of the taxes they collected from Ireland during the Famine. The papers in London ridiculed and satirized (in the inimitable English intellect of Hume et. al.) the 'unsettled' or adle-brained drunken Irish, who could offer no more resistance.

    "As they were unable to pay rack rent to the absentee landlord, thousands of the starving ones were thrown out, and other thousands threatened to be thrown out of their wretched homes, to perish on the roadside. In consequence frenzied poor men shot a few of the vilest of the land-agents and landlords. At the opening of the Parliament in January '46, Queen Victoria, addressing her 'Lords and Gentlemen' observed, with deep regret, the fearful situation In Ireland-adding-'It will be our duty to consider whether any measure can be devised, calculated to give peace and protection for life there.'

    The simple reader, who knows not the way of the British with Ireland, would here naturally come to the conclusion that the tender-hearted gentlewoman, full of sympathy… was directing her Parliament to try to save a multitude of lives. But this would be a mistaken conclusion. She was here referring to the handful of Anglo-Irish landlords and agents, whose lives must solicitously be protected whilst, in trying times, they were endeavouring to hack and hew their usual pound of flesh from the walking skeletons in the bogs and mountains of Ireland. Some of these thoughtless ones were in danger of slaying a landlord rather than see him slay their famished wife, or hollow-eyed children. Hence the good Queen advised her 'Lords and Gentlemen' that a stringent Coercion Bill was needed, and must be provided to relieve the unfortunate conditions prevailing in Ireland. [3]
    [3]-Notes: Among other benefits which the excellent Bill proposed to confer upon the suffering people, it rendered liable to fourteen years transportation away for anyone found out of his own house after the sun set in the evening and before it arose in the morning. In the operation of this beneficial Act many things occurred, that to an outsider might seem strange. For instance John Mitchell records such happenings as that of a quiet respectable farmer, who on a summer evening, when the sun was near setting, strolled a short way down the road to pay his working-men and walking back when the sun had just sunk-though it was still broad daylight-was arrested for heinous crime against 'the Queen and Constitution of this realm.’" (6)

  2. #12
    Join Date
    Jan 2015
    The Sons of Aeneus at Troy (see below) are still a powerful force along with those on the probable other side (Brutti of Britain and Etruria) in the Trojan War we know saw a lot of noble families switching allegiances - in the Hegelian manner still used today. Would it surprise you if there was an elite family in Macedonia who also gave a son to Romans (other than Polybius who was in the house of Scipio - very important in the demise of Carthage) and made Empire beholding only to a family or three rather than SPQR or having to share the spoils with mere citizens? I refer to Julius Caesar and other names like Czar, Kaiser etc., in later eras. Yes, there were such families including that of Joseph of Arimathaea and the Ptolemies who Alexander put in charge of Egypt where another important city and Library of Knowledge bore his name. These families owned mines all over the world, and the Ptolemies once owned 20% of the Old World too. Joseph was the Roman Minister of Mines and he sat on the Sanhedrin over-seeing what happened to his son-in-law Yeshua (Jesus).

    "Alexandroupolis: Founded in 340 BC while Alexander was still a crown prince under his father Philip II, little else is known about this presumably short-lived settlement other than its location was likely near the modern Bulgarian city of Sandanski in the extreme southwest of the country.

    Alexandria Troas: Originally founded in 334 BC, this city on the east Aegean coast did not receive the Alexandria name until 301 BC after being renamed by Alexander’s successor in the region, Lysimachus. The suffix ‘Troas’ refers to the Troad, the historical name of the Biga Peninsula in Turkey at the southwest end of the Sea of Marmara not far from Troy. A prominent city in its time perhaps as large as 100 000 residents, Alexandria Troas was refounded as a major Roman administration centre in 12 BC and was even a possible candidate for becoming the new capital of the Roman Empire under Constantine (he, of course, would choose Byzantium). The city remains a titular see of the Catholic Church but fell into decline in the medieval era. Much of the city’s ruins were plundered for building material. Among the ruins still visible there today are an old bath/gymnasium complex and an ancient stadium discovered in the 1970s but not unearthed until 2009."

    Alexandria by the Latmus is also a Catholic See to this day, and I would expect many more such proofs of this sort are to be found. It was given back the name it had before it was conquered.

    Yes, indeed, a tangled web we weave! If you look into why Alexander stopped before going further into India I think you will find a man named Yuhin who might even have had a hand in poisoning the still young Alexander as well as the rise of Asoka soon after. You also will find that Philip of Macedon was credited as having the gift of prophecy just as Alexander was sainted in some Christian churches.
    Last edited by R_Baird; 02-28-2016 at 06:17 PM.

  3. #13
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    Jan 2015
    In the annals of Rome we hear a great deal about many men who did so well in war and even a decent Emperor with some spiritual knowledge (Marcus Aurelias). Of course we also hear about a lot of back-stabbing corrupt immoral behaviour from the likes of Nero and Caligula. But do you know about Cornelia whose magnanimous presence was second to none and whose children were also decent people. I place this on the site because it is an important example of good governance from decent people. A rare thing that is indeed, since Empire began. It is no easy matter to see their influence in what follows and what lead to great men like Seneca who was an inspiration for Thomas Jefferson. The story is flattering to the mores and beliefs of the people in their era.

    "They were sons of Tiberius Gracchus, who, although he had been censor at Rome, twice consul, and had celebrated two triumphs, derived his more illustrious dignity from his virtue. 2 Therefore, after the death1 of the Scipio who conquered Hannibal, although Tiberius had not been his friend, but actually at variance with him, he was judged worthy to take Scipio's daughter Cornelia in marriage. We are told, moreover, that he once caught a pair of serpents on his bed, and that the soothsayers, after considering the prodigy, forbade him to kill both serpents or to let both go, but to decide the fate of one or the other of them, declaring also that the male serpent, if killed, would bring death to Tiberius, and the female, to Cornelia. 3 Tiberius, accordingly, who loved his wife, and thought that since she was still young and he was older it was more fitting that he should die, killed the male serpent, but let the female go. A short time afterwards, as the story goes, he died leaving Cornelia with twelve children by him.

    4 Cornelia took charge of the children and of the estate, and showed herself so discreet, so good a mother, and so magnanimous, that Tiberius was thought to have been made no bad decision when he elected to die instead of such a woman. For when Ptolemy3 the king offered to share his crown with her and sought her hand in marriage, she refused him, and remained a widow. 5 In this state she lost most of her children, but three survived; one daughter, who married Scipio the younger, and two sons, Tiberius and Caius, whose lives I now relate. These sons Cornelia reared with such scrupulous care that although confessedly no other Romans were so well endowed by nature, they were thought to owe their virtues more to education than to nature."*.html

    This review of their lives gives us what really set them apart from most leaders. They died championing the rights of the common people!

    "Cornelia was certainly one of the most remarkable women of any period in Roman history. She was born in the late Republic, a time when the Roman matrona had evolved from the politically powerful Hellenistic princesses, expanding cultural opportunities for women. As a daughter of a hero, wife of an aristocrat, mother of the champions of the Roman people, Cornelia was admired for her virtue, fidelity, and especially for her intelligence. She moved in circles that were open only to the most respected women in Rome. It is clear, however, that, while her family connections were strong, her own abilities won the admiration and confidence of important Romans. She was sought out for advice and conversation long after the death of her husband and sons and later writers portrayed her as the ideal Roman matron.

    C Plutarch, a Greek historian of the first century CE, stated that the marriage was one of mutual love derived from the union of two of the most virtuous individuals in Rome. However, Polybius, a Greek historian of the second century BCE, states the betrothal of Cornelia to the much older Tiberius Gracchus occurred after her father's death and was arranged by close relatives. With him she bore twelve children, yet only three lived to adulthood, Sempronia, Tiberius, and Gaius. Tiberius was most likely born in 163 BCE, with Gaius following nine years later. Sempronia was probably older. Cornelia's husband, Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus died in 154-153 BCE, leaving her to raise her daughter and two sons on her own, with Tiberius being around the age of nine and Gaius being an infant. She supervised their education and filled them with the culture and refinement that she herself had absorbed in her parent's home. Sempronia was already the wife of Scipio Aemilianus when she was seventeen year old and Tiberius (the son) was served under her husband's command in Africa.

    Soon after the death of her husband, the Egyptian monarch Ptolemy VIII Physcon proposed to her and she outright refused him to remain faithful to the memory of her husband. She was praised for her devotion to her household and the education of her children. Cicero details how carefully she sought out the finest Greek tutors, such as the famous rhetorician Diophanes of Mytilene and the Stoic Blossius of Cumae. He further states that her children were nourished more by her conversation than her breast. At a time when other women of her age were displaying their various ornamentation, Cornelia declared that her sons were her most precious jewels.

    It would be difficult to separate Tiberius' short and dramatic political career entirely from his mother's influence. From childhood, she had groomed him for success, and it is doubtful Tiberius considered her any less a political ally and advisor. Her reputation was able to survive rumors that she assisted her daughter in the murder of Scipio Aemilianus because he opposed the legislation of Tiberius. Following the assassination that cut short Tiberius' promising career, Cornelia did not let her son's memory fade away. She was a major factor in fashioning his subsequent image as a martyr for the popular cause, which was gaining momentum in Rome, largely because of Tiberius' land reform program.

    Her influence on her younger son Gaius, who, as tribune in 123 BCE, lionized his brother's efforts and became leader of the popular movement, must have been just as strong. In one of her letters she begs Gaius not to employ the same methods of radical reform as did his brother."
    Last edited by R_Baird; 02-28-2016 at 06:48 PM.

  4. #14
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    Jan 2015
    The date of his birth is uncertain. Most reports say Julius Caesar was born in 100 BCE and some say 102. He is said to be a descendant of Aeneas and that is very important. The factions of the Trojan War are at best uncertain but most agree the families switched allegiances during the long course of the war, as they saw fit. In truth the people of Greece and Anatolia are of the same Phoenician stock if you look into the era or millennia before this war. The Hyksos rulers of Egypt similarly are not well defined in origin or even when they returned to rule Egypt. Yes, 'returned', I do say. Hyksos translates as foreigners. I will use a date of 1800 BCE for their return but just as is true in the post Hyksos period at Elephantine we have evidence of a garrison of what is called Jews on this strategic island, I say they were always present in some form.

    I hazard a guess that Caesar was a 'son of Aeneas' as the legend says. The Brutti in Italy are also remnants of the Trojan War, and the name in Latin of the place Pythagoras settled when forced to leave Greece due to politics and spiritual beliefs is Bruttium. All of his biographers agree his mother was Phoenician but I say his father was as well, not matter if he was a Milesian, Phocean or many others including Lydian he can be traced to the same people called 'ancient ones' or ogygia by Plutarch who is said to be Greek, but Greeks are settled by the Danaus or DN of Homer. It is clearer that Macedonia was more advanced than Greece during the Trojan War, now that we have archaeology as a source rather than legends of liars. Same with the largest navy in the Mediterranean credited to the Sybarites near Bruttium and a place called Tara. I have connected dots to Silesians and Galatians pirates back from the time of Caesar to the Phoenician Pirates of Rhodes and Samos where Pythagoras lived. Their skull and bones emblem or totem was still on the stamps of Epirus I collected in my youth. I can relate to legends of ancestry and the effect it has on a youth, it lead to my lifelong interest in the origins of people, their families and a true history which always asks who are these people and where did they come from. I did not know at age five what this was called, cell diffusion history, may not have even been given such a name in the later 1950s. My given names Robert and Bruce as well as my last name Baird are connected with the DNN and BR or Brutti.

    We are given various accounts of a legendary smell about Caesar as a priest, then soldier being captured by pirates who treated him well but he somehow takes over and kills them and later supplies a fleet of ships to his military command. It happened on the way to Rhodes after his father died when he was about 16 years old. I suspect just as I demonstrate with Virgil's Aeneid that there is a load of ass-kissing re-writing of earlier myths all designed to feed the ego and myth of a man with high aspirations and corrupt intent despite claiming to be a populist rather than elitist. That is the name of the two political facts in Rome at this time. It is also said people of class would switch from party to party and one can say class was then as now - all a matter of greed.

    "Gaius Julius Caesar was born 12 July 100 BCE (though some cite 102 as his birth year). His father, also Gaius Julius Caesar, was a Praetor who governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, was of noble birth. Both held to the Populare ideology of Rome which favored democratization of government and more rights for the lower class as opposed to the Optimate factions’ claim of the superiority of the nobility and traditional Roman values which favored the upper classes. It should be understood that the Optimate and the Populare were not political parties in conflict with each other but, rather, political ideologies which many people shifted toward and from, regardless of class in society. The concept of appealing to the people for support, rather than seeking approval from the Roman Senate or the other Patricians, would work well for Caesar later in life.

    Youth & Military Service

    When he was sixteen, his father died and Caesar became the head of the family. Deciding that belonging to the priesthood would bring the most benefit to the family, he managed to have himself nominated as the new High Priest of Jupiter. As a priest not only had to be of patrician stock, but married to a patrician, Caesar broke off his engagement to a plebian girl and married the patrician, Cornelia, daughter of a high profile and influential member of the Populares, Lucius Cinna. When the Roman ruler Sulla declared himself dictator, he began a systematic purge of his enemies and particularly of those who held to the Populare ideology. Caesar was targeted and fled Rome but his sentence was lifted through the intercession of his mother’s family. Still, he was stripped of his position as priest and his wife’s dowry was confiscated. Left without means of supporting himself or his family, Caesar joined the army.

    He proved himself an effective soldier, even being awarded the civic crown for saving a life in battle, and was promoted to the staff of the military legate to Bithynia to secure a fleet of ships. In this, as in his time as a soldier, Caesar was successful and, when Sulla died, he decided to return to Rome and try his luck as an orator (a modern-day lawyer). In this, too, he proved a success and became well known as an eloquent speaker.

    It is said that when pirates told him he would be ransomed for twenty talents, Caesar claimed he was worth at least fifty.

    In 75 BCE, while sailing to Greece, Caesar was kidnapped by pirates and held for ransom. In keeping with the high opinion he had of himself, it is said that when the pirates told him he would be ransomed for twenty talents, Caesar claimed he was worth at least fifty. While he was held captive by them, Caesar was treated well and consistently maintained a friendly relationship with the pirates. He is said to have repeatedly told them that, upon his release, he would hunt them down and have them crucified for the affront to his family and personal dignity and this threat the pirates understood as a joke. Upon his release, however, Caesar made good on that threat. He had the pirates’ throats slit before crucifixion, however, in a show of leniency owing to their easy treatment of him in captivity. This determination of Caesar’s, to do exactly what he said he would do, became one of his defining characteristics throughout his life." has a little variation on the story for you to read, and all these sites speak as if there is a great deal of certainty about what they are saying - though some will use words like "allegedly". I suspect teachers use this stuff for tests in classes.

    Allegedly, a descendent of Trojan prince Aeneas, Julius Caesar's auspicious birth, c. July 12 or 13, 100 B.C., marked the beginning of a new chapter in Roman history. By age 31, Caesar had fought in several wars and become involved in Roman politics. After several alliances, he became dictator of the Roman Empire. This led to a senatorial coup, and Caesar's eventual assassination, on the Ides of March.

    Early Years

    A politically adept and popular leader of the Roman Republic, Julius Caesar significantly transformed what became known as the Roman Empire, by greatly expanding its geographic reach and establishing its imperial system.

    While it has long been disputed, it's estimated that Julius Caesar was born in Rome on July 12 or 13, 100 BC. While he hailed from Roman aristocrats, his family was far from rich. When Caesar was 16 his father, Gaius Caesar, died. He remained close to his mother, Aurelia.

    The Rome of Caesar's youth was unstable. An element of disorder ruled the Republic, which had discredited its nobility and seemed unable to handle its considerable size and influence.

    At around the time of his father's death, Caesar made a concerted effort to side with the country's nobility."

  5. #15
    Join Date
    Jan 2015
    As I continue to research Caesar and his legend on a thread devoted to him I get connections backwards through Greece to pre-Trojan eras and forwards to where one later finds Kaiser titles derived from the word Caesar. It all fits with a larger history of Keltoi Phoenicians or DN of Homer back to when Dolni Vestonici proves some very important technology in 27,000 BCE.

    Another source raises an item I suspect is false in reference to Caesar selling his body to a man. But you never know, his troops did sing songs saying he had to pay for his Gallic women. More importantly we have dates which could show Julius had no father at age 12 or 13. This source is widely copied and who knows where it originates.

    "102/100 BCE: Gaius Julius Caesar was born (by Caesarean section according to an unlikely legend) of Aurelia and Gaius Julius Caesar, a praetor. His family had noble, patrician roots, although they were neither rich nor influential in this period. His aunt Julia was the wife of Gaius Marius, leader of the Popular faction.

    c. 85 BCE: His father died, and a few years later he was betrothed and possibly married to a wealthy young woman, Cossutia. This betrothal/marriage was soon broken off, and at age 18 he married Cornelia, the daughter of a prominent member of the Popular faction; she later bore him his only legitimate child, a daughter, Julia. When the Optimate dictator, Sulla, was in power, he ordered Caesar to divorce her; when Caesar refused, Sulla proscribed him (listed him among those to be executed), and Caesar went into hiding. Caesar's influential friends and relatives eventually got him a pardon.

    c. 79 BCE: Caesar, on the staff of a military legate, was awarded the civic crown (oak leaves) for saving the life of a citizen in battle. His general sent him on an embassy to Nicomedes, the king of Bithynia, to obtain a fleet of ships; Caesar was successful, but subsequently he became the butt of gossip that he had persuaded the king (a homosexual) only by agreeing to sleep with him. When Sulla died in 78, Caesar returned to Rome and began a career as a orator/lawyer (throughout his life he was known as an eloquent speaker) and a life as an elegant man-about-town.

    75 BCE: While sailing to Greece for further study, Caesar was kidnapped by Cilician pirates and held for ransom. When informed that they intended to ask for 20 talents, he is supposed to have insisted that he was worth at least 50. He maintained a friendly, joking relationship with the pirates while the money was being raised, but warned them that he would track them down and have them crucified after he was released. He did just that, with the help of volunteers, as a warning to other pirates, but he first cut their throats to lessen their suffering because they had treated him well."

    The Nicomedes mention takes me into his family tree to find Celts (AKA Keltoi in Greece - and the ancient ones or DN). Then one sees people invading and doing nothing or enforcing the status quo in a large territory beyond just Greece. It was shortly after Alexander of Macedon (AKA 'the Great" who definitely was gay as were Cretans and Spartans who just happen to be where we find Caesar's Nichomedes) united a large area which I say was ruled by Phoenicians like the Hatti or Milesians two millennia earlier still. This is a wiki excerpt.

    "He commenced his reign by putting to death two of his brothers but the third, subsequently called Zipoetes II, raised an insurrection against him and succeeded in maintaining himself, for some time, in the independent sovereignty of a considerable part of Bithynia. Meanwhile, Nicomedes was threatened with an invasion from Antiochus I Soter, king of the Seleucid Empire, who had already made war upon his father, Zipoetes I, and, to strengthen himself against this danger, he concluded an alliance with Heraclea Pontica and shortly afterwards with Antigonus II Gonatas. The threatened attack, however, passed over with little injury. Antiochus actually invaded Bithynia but withdrew again without risking a battle.

    It was more against his brother than his foreign enemies that Nicomedes now called in the assistance of more powerful auxiliaries and entered into an alliance with the Celts who, under Leonnorius and Lutarius, had arrived on the opposite side of the Bosphorus and were, at this time, engaged in the siege of Byzantium, 277 BC. Having furnished them with the means of crossing into Asia, where they founded Galatia, he first turned the arms of his new auxiliaries against Zipoetes II, whom he defeated and put to death, and thus reunited the whole of Bithynia under his dominion.[2]"

    As suspected we have Cilicia and Silesia connected but I am surprised to find a book or two connecting them directly to Germany at this time. I think you can now see why Alexander had to get the consent of the Kelts before he went off to spread his Empire - else his base of operations would be taken away.

    "The Great German Nation: Origins and Destiny

    Craig M. White - 2007 - ‎History
    These Silesians probably come from the Cilician region of the Hittite {This is Hatti and Chatti and Katti} Empire. The battle-axes of ancient Silesia are traced back to Troy by Gordon Childe,585 ...

    2300 Days of Hell - Page 100 - Google Books Result

    Joseph F. Dumond - 2014
    The name of Cilicia in Asia Minor was simply transplanted to Eastern Germany by the Hatti who migrated from Cilicia to Silesia, then to the Rhine Silesia is only ...
    Last edited by R_Baird; 02-29-2016 at 10:01 AM.

  6. #16
    Join Date
    Jan 2015
    Graves gives us a great deal to fully grasp when he asserts there were no Gods before Empire in Greece. Think long and hard as you read this. It also tells us how women became deprecated at the same time Ariadne was made the last Queen of the all-important Crete center of culture. You might ask (if you know Crete was gay or be-sexual) why this was taking place as Temples were built and captives or commoners were used as 'Devoted Ones'. Cahill's Gifts of the Jews tells us their 'devotion' included being harvested for ritualistic and divinatory purposes after they were used and abused by the Temple Priests. Because the Amazons are true history according to archaeology I say there was a major change which took place around the 13th Century BPE and sexuality of some southern people seems involved. I can think of many cultural initiative in Babylon and Egypt which accounts for these changes - including the cult of the dead enhanced by drugs we know came from Peru which were found in Mummies. The Amazons had to take their families and friends to escape these patristic theoganies or kingly quests, and move north to places like Scythia where we have kurgans showing men were subservient to them to at least some degree. Graves tells us about the acceptance of coitus as the cause of children - could this have been also part of the mix, and women were thus made into baby-factories in the Abrahamic era? Was the Trojan War shortly after this a part of the ethos?


    THE mediaeval emissaries of the Catholic Church brought to Great Britain, in addition to the whole corpus of sacred history, a Continental university system based on the Greek and Latin Classics. Such native legends as those of King Arthur, Guy of Warwick, Robin Hood, the Blue Hag of Leicester, and King Lear were considered suitable enough for the masses, yet by early Tudor times the clergy and the educated classes were referring far more frequently to the myths in Ovid, Virgil, and the grammar school summaries of the Trojan War.

    Though official English literature of the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries cannot, therefore, be properly understood except in the light of Greek mythology, the Classics have lately lost so much ground in schools and universities that an educated person is now no longer expected to know (for instance) who Deucalion, Pelops, Daedalus, Oenone, Laocoön, or Antigone may have been. Current knowledge of these myths is mostly derived from such fairy-story versions as Kingsley’s Heroes and Hawthorne’s Tanglewood Tales; and at first sight this does not seem to matter much, because for the last two thousand years it has been the fashion to dismiss the myths as bizarre and chimerical fancies, a charming legacy from the childhood of the Greek intelligence, which the Church naturally depreciates in order to emphasize the greater spiritual importance of the Bible. Yet it is difficult to overestimate their value in the study of early European history, religion, and sociology.

    ‘Chimerical’ is an adjectival form of the noun chimaera, meaning ‘she-goat’. Four thousand years ago the Chimaera can have seemed no more bizarre than any religious, heraldic, or commercial emblem does today. She was a formal composite beast with (as Homer records) a lion’s head, a goat’s body, and a serpent’s tail. A Chimaera has been found carved on the walls of a Hittite temple at Carchemish and, like such other composite beasts as the Sphinx and the Unicorn, will originally have been a calendar symbol: each component represented a season of the Queen of Heaven’s sacred year—as, according to Diodorus Siculus, the three strings of her tortoise-shell lyre also did. This ancient three-season year is discussed by Nilsson in his Primitive Time Reckoning (1910). Only a small part, however, of the huge, disorganized corpus of Greek mythology, which contains importations from Crete, Egypt, Palestine, Phrygia, Babylonia, and elsewhere, can properly be classified with the Chimaera as true myth. True myth may be defined as the reduction to narrative shorthand of ritual mime performed on public festivals, and in many cases recorded pictorially on temple walls, vases, seals, bowls, mirrors, chests, shields, tapestries, and the like. The Chimaera and her fellow calendar-beasts must have figured prominently in these dramatic performances which, with their iconographic and oral records, became the prime authority, or charter, for the religious institutions of each tribe, clan, or city.

    Their subjects were archaic magic-makings that promoted the fertility or stability of a sacred queendom, or kingdom—queendoms having, it seems, preceded kingdoms throughout the Greek-speaking area—and amendments to these, introduced as circumstances required. Lucian’s essay On the Dance lists an imposing number of ritual mimes still performed in the second century AD; and Pausanias’s description of the temple paintings at Delphi and the carvings on Cypselus’s Chest, suggests that an immense amount of miscellaneous mythological records, of which no trace now remains, survived into the same period. True myth must be distinguished from:

    (1) Philosophical allegory, as in Hesiod’s cosmogony.
    (2) ‘Aetiological’ explanation of myths no longer understood, as in Admetus’s yoking of a lion and a boar to his chariot.
    (3) Satire or parody, as in Silenus’s account of Atlantis.
    (4) Sentimental fable, as in the story of Narcissus and Echo.
    (5) Embroidered history, as in Arion’s adventure with the dolphin.
    (6) Minstrel romance, as in the story of Cephalus and Procris.
    (7) Political propaganda, as in Theseus’s Federalization of Attica.
    (8) Moral legend, as in the story of Eriphyle’s necklace.
    (9) Humorous anecdote, as in the bedroom farce of Heracles, Omphale, and Pan.
    (10) Theatrical melodrama, as in the story of Thestor and his daughters.
    (11) Heroic saga, as in the main argument of the Iliad.
    (12) Realistic fiction, as in Odysseus’s visit to the Phaeacians.

    Yet genuine mythic elements may be found embedded in the least promising stories, and the fullest or most illuminating version of a given myth is seldom supplied by any one author; nor, when searching for its original form, should one assume that the more ancient the written source, the more authoritative it must be. Often, for instance, the playful Alexandrian Callimachus, or the frivolous Augustan Ovid, or the dry-as-dust late-Byzantine Tzetzes, gives an obviously earlier version of a myth than do Hesiod or the Greek tragedians; and the thirteenth-century Excidium Troiae is, in parts, mythically sounder than the Iliad. When making prose sense of a mythological or pseudomythological narrative, one should always pay careful attention to the names, tribal origin, and fates of the characters concerned; and then restore it to the form of dramatic ritual, whereupon its incidental elements will sometimes suggest an analogy with another myth which has been given a wholly different anecdotal twist, and shed light on both."

    Since the sons of Aeneus play such an important role in the foundation myths of all modern or Classical Empires we have been subjected to, it might have merit to read the story and see coins made to continue to promote it. Coins are money and money after all is said and done is why myths are made.

    Caesar I and Caesar II were games I enjoyed. I expect games are much more intricate today. They are doing more to educate people or get them interested that school ever did - I think. Here is a good rendition of the Roman connection to Troy. It is about as accurate as most history or myth.,9261,60,all
    Last edited by R_Baird; 03-12-2016 at 07:06 PM.

  7. #17
    Join Date
    Jan 2015
    The OP has T. S. Eliot promoting Virgil through a society which can only be called establishment oriented. He was one of a few Americans who had that kind of literary clout and hutzpah. Ben Franklin. I can connect the dots for many more great families and esoteric through lines for over 20,000 years. There is no NWO!

    Toynbee's history was a cover-up and if he knew who was in control in Egypt or Rome he did not write it in his books. That does not mean his involvement with British Intelligence is not important. The use of media including the books and movies which resulted from those author's efforts is substantial in determining our present society. Is it better because Orwell was right about 1984 or Aldous was prophetic? Is this really a lot like the drugged up Oracles in Greece getting payola for promoting a new venture in a new colony? The Aquarian Conspiracy itself was forwarded by a top futurist named Naisbitt in one of its later editions.

    The degree of manipulation you know about is directly related to the amount of what you think about. Thinking is not a skill you learn in school and presumably your parents were too busy to teach you even if they knew what was going on - which would make them very unusual.

    There is no black and white boogeyman but both sides of every issue are managed and considered with resultant contingencies generated when necessary. The politicians are not all that capable of deciding what is needed and they listen to the bureaucrats who are supported and trained by think tanks or outgrowths of the Rhodes Round Tables and banker's monies. So WHAT?

    Some people think it is bad to make plans for the future and hope their g-d will bring them Rapture - which is a racist ideology as you should know. Others including Ted Turner actually say what they want - and that is refreshing but scary too.

    We must evaluate the extent of lies from all quarters if we are to evaluate the Huxley's. Obviously by the very fact that they were related to THE Huxley in the Huxley-Wilberforce debates which put Christianity on the defensive to an extent it had to drop the creationist argument in most places and even consider the Pope might not be infallible and other lesser adaptations it waffles about such as Vatican II.

    I can assure you Stanford Research Institute is totally into mind control of any and all kinds. I have raised concerns about Esalen having this kind of involvement in social engineering. Aldous and others at Esalen provided what I consider to be a leading edge breeding ground for the ecumenical wisdom all religions must eventually get behind or life on Earth is in grave danger of an Armageddon type event that many lifeforms will not recover from.

    That does not mean I like Tavistock's involvement in the World Health Organization founding and support for drug pushing psychiatrists who do not study chemistry enough to know the damage done - especially when used in concert with any other form of natural and unnatural chemicals. I can tell you much of what you will read in the link that follows is true. That does not mean I agree with any of it's conclusions or fear-mongering. The Church of Scientology through Crowley and Jack Parsons is part of what happened, The kids who shot up the movie theatre in Colorado a few years ago were the children of a SRI mind control scientists who might even have used his own as guinea pigs (Not as bad as what B. F. Skinner did probably). The occult has lots of uses inside Churches other than Scientology as I have proven in many places so waving that flag around as if some devil is at work does not make any sense for me.

    "The high priest for Britain's Opium War was Aldous Huxley, the grandson of Thomas H. Huxley, a founder of the Rhodes Roundtable group and a lifelong collaborator of Arnold Toynbee. Toynbee himself sat on the RIIA council for nearly fifty years, headed the Research Division of British intelligence throughout World War II, and served as wartime briefing officer of Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Toynbee's "theory" of history, expounded in his twenty-volume History of Western civilization, was that its determining culture has always been the rise and decline of grand imperial dynasties. At the very point that these dynasties—the "thousand year Reich" of the Egyptian pharaohs, the Roman Empire, and the British Empire—succeed in imposing their rule over the entire face of the earth, they tend to decline. Toynbee argued that this decline could be abated if the ruling oligarchy (like that of the British Roundtable) would devote itself to the recruitment and training of an ever-expanding priesthood dedicated to the principles of imperial rule.3

    Trained at Toynbee's Oxford, Aldous Huxley was one of the initiates in the "Children of the Sun," a Dionysian cult comprised of the children of Britain's Roundtable elite.4 Among the other initiates were T.S. Eliot, W.H. Auden, Sir Oswald Mosley, and D.H. Lawrence, Huxley's homosexual lover. It was Huxley, furthermore, who would launch the legal battle in the 1950s to have Lawrence's pornographic novel Lady Chatterley's Lover allowed into the United States on the ground that it was a misunderstood "work of art."5

    Aldous Huxley, along with his brother Julian, was tutored at Oxford by H.G. Wells, the head of British foreign intelligence during World War I and the spiritual grandfather of the Aquarian Conspiracy. Ferguson accurately sees the counterculture as the realization of what Wells called The Open Conspiracy: Blue Prints for a World Revolution. The "Open Conspiracy," Wells wrote, "will appear first, I believe, as a conscious organization of intelligent and quite possibly in some cases, wealthy men, as a movement having distinct social and political aims, confessedly ignoring most of the existing apparatus of political control, or using it only as an incidental implement in the stages, a mere movement of a number of people in a certain direction who will presently discover with a sort of surprise the common object toward which they are all moving . . . In all sorts of ways they will be influencing and controlling the apparatus of the ostensible government." 6

    What Ferguson left out is that Wells called his conspiracy a "one-world brain" which would function as "a police of the mind." Such books as the Open Conspiracy were for the priesthood itself. But Wells's popular writings (Time Machine, The Island of Dr. Moreau, and so forth), and those of his proteges Aldous Huxley (Brave New World) and George Orwell (1984 and Animal Farm), were written as "mass appeal" organizing documents on behalf of one-world order. Only in the United States are these "science fiction classics" taught in grade school as attacks against fascism.

    Under Wells's tutelage, Huxley was first introduced to Aleister Crowley. Crowley was a product of the cultist circle that developed in Britain from the 1860s under the guiding influence of Edward Bulwer-Lytton—who, it will be recalled, was the colonial minister under Lord Palmerston during the Second Opium War. In 1886, Crowley, William Butler Yeats, and several other Bulwer-Lytton proteges formed the Isis-Urania Temple of Hermetic Students of the Golden Dawn. This Isis Cult was organized around the 1877 manuscript Isis Unveiled by Madame Helena Blavatsky, in which the Russian occultist called for the British aristocracy to organize itself into an Isis priesthood.7

    The subversive Isis Urania Order of the Golden Dawn is today an international drug ring said to be controlled by the Canadian multi-millionaire, Maurice Strong, who is also a top operative for British Intelligence.

    In 1937, Huxley was sent to the United States, where he remained throughout the period of World War II. Through a Los Angeles contact, Jacob Zeitlin, Huxley and pederast Christopher Isherwood were employed as script writers for MGM, Warner Brothers, and Walt Disney Studios. Hollywood was already dominated by organized crime elements bankrolled and controlled through London. Joseph Kennedy was the frontman {Kennedy was no simple front. He was worse!} for a British consortium that created RKO studios, and "Bugsy" Siegel, the West Coast boss of the Lansky syndicate, was heavily involved in Warner Brothers and MGM. {Scientology moved in when others moved out.}

    Huxley founded a nest of Isis cults in southern California and in San Francisco, that consisted exclusively of several hundred deranged worshipers of Isis and other cult gods. Isherwood, during the California period, translated and propagated a number of ancient Zen Buddhist documents, inspiring Zen-mystical cults along the way.8

    In effect, Huxley and Isherwood (joined soon afterwards by Thomas Mann and his daughter Elisabeth Mann Borghese) laid the foundations during the late 1930s and the 1940s for the later LSD culture, by recruiting a core of "initiates" into the Isis cults that Huxley's mentors, Bulwer-Lytton, Blavatsky, and Crowley, had constituted while stationed in India."

    Bulwer-Lytton was instrumental in the Thule Society which heralded Hitler as the new Messiah after taking part in training him and his father before him. There has always been a push and pull Dialectic - no New World Order. I have identified smaller groups of more advanced people who train the best operatives like Thomas Paine, St. Germain, Jean Lafitte and Thomas Jefferson.

  8. #18
    Join Date
    Jan 2015
    Getting back to the actual era of the Aeneid I am excited to report more dots being connected.

    As I have pointed out before Tara is the sacred mountain or original spiritual site for many northern Kelts (Finn and the Fianna or Phoenicians) and later what became Druidic thought. The name is found in the area of Sybaris and now we have another connection backwards and forwards to the Trojan War exodus including the Sons of Aeneas and the Brutti.

    Further work today brings more to the above and fills another step in the Greek language origin or tracing of it back to what developed in the area researched by Gimbutas. It also connects to early Etruria which is important.

    It may not excite most people but when you invest your life in the proofing of what relates to Ogham and know you are up against proscriptions galore it sure is nice to find these proofs. A proscription is the kind of thing which seeks to eliminate a person or knowledge system just as was done against Druids and Ogham.

    In the following jpeg you will see a shaman's drum with pictographic markings including a building with a cross or steeple on top. In North America these representations of man and how the energy of the cosmos enters man are done in rock kiosk forms. There are near runic and half Ogham art glyphs including what could be a "p' or a letter starting with what is called the Fupark (AKA futhark). It could be a tract but does not have enough symbology due to repetition of the teepees or something which looks like teepees. Nat Geo and S-A have said people crossed the Ice to America as much as 30,000 years ago.

    This is taken from art done when Carl Linnaeus returned from Lapland in Northern Sweden a long time ago.

    Looking further into a Runic connection I noticed a Greek connection in Wikipedia. It is a script which shows up in the region of the Brutti and Pythagoras. It is said the scripts are Phoenician which I know is true but this seems pretty interesting to find where a Druid encampment was. Tara is the name of a city a little ways north and the script is connected with Etruscan as well. It is also Bardic or poetic, and that is so interesting to find under the Runic given the dating being older than the Runic dates they give. My research tells me they are wrong about the dates because they are focused on the Fupark which was not part of early Runes or Ogham.


    The inscription of the so-called Cup of Nestor, found in Ischia; Euboean alphabet, 8th century BC.
    The Euboean alphabet was used in the cities of Eretria and Chalkis and in related colonies in southern Italy, notably in Cumae and in Pithekoussai. It was through this variant that the Greek alphabet was transmitted to Italy, where it gave rise to the Old Italic alphabets, including Etruscan and ultimately the Latin alphabet. Some of the distinctive features of the Latin as compared to the standard Greek script are already present in the Euboean model.[34]

    The Euboean alphabet belonged to the "western" ("red") type. It had Χ = /ks/ and Ψ = /kʰ/. Like most early variants it also lacked Ω, and used Η for the consonant /h/ rather than for the vowel /ɛː/. It also kept the archaic letters digamma (Ϝ) = /w/ and qoppa (Ϙ) = /k/. San (Ϻ) = /s/ was not normally used in writing, but apparently still transmitted as part of the alphabet, because it occurs in abecedaria found in Italy and was later adopted by Etruscan.[34]

    Like Athens, Euboea had a form of "Λ" that resembled a Latin L and a form of "Σ" that resembled a Latin S. Other elements foreshadowing the Latin forms include "Γ" shaped like a pointed "C" (Greek Gamma pointed.svg), "Δ" shaped like a pointed "D" (Greek Delta 04.svg), and "Ρ" shaped like "R" (Greek Rho 03.svg).[34]

    The classicist Barry B. Powell has proposed that Euboea may have been where the Greek alphabet was first employed, c. 775-750 BC, and that it may have been invented specifically for the purpose of recording epic poetry.[35]"

    The Battle of Cumae and all the other battles of the era are probably not unconnected with the combatants from the Trojan War, and yet these people switched allegiances often so it is hard to determine who is doing what for whom or to whom. Reserves or distant allegiances often were enough to swing the tide against any party to every contest. And the people behind the scenes sometimes enjoyed seeing their 'champion' or hero match up against their opposing foe who often was part of the developing nobility who once claimed descent from the Gods. So, a student trying to grasp this insane rigmarole which continued into the 20th Century is justified in wondering what is this ____ and why should we continue to learn about it. My reply to a comment like that is "We must end the game or Hegelian Dialectic which includes these fake gods and nobles who really are not as important as they like to have us believe. They destroyed the prior cultures and they will continue to do things of little or no value if we do not learn their games and act."
    Last edited by R_Baird; 03-28-2016 at 02:02 PM.

  9. #19
    Join Date
    Jan 2015
    Lucius Seneca has some dots to offer in a history no witness can aver or testify about. You can call it pumpkinification is there is truly such a word.

    "One must be born either a Pharaoh or a fool. If I choose to answer, I will say whatever trips off my tongue. Who has ever made the historian produce witness to swear for him? But if an authority must be produced, ask of the man who saw Drusilla translated to heaven: the same man will aver he saw Claudius on the road, dot and carry one. [Sidenote: Virg. Aen. ii, 724] Will he nill he, all that happens in heaven he needs must see. He is the custodian of the Appian Way; by that route, you know, both Tiberius and Augustus went up to the gods. Question him, he will tell you the tale when you are alone; before company he is dumb. You see he swore in the Senate that he beheld Drusilla mounting heavenwards, and all he got for his good news was that everybody gave him the lie: since when he solemnly swears he will never bear witness again to what he has seen, not even if he had seen a man murdered in open market. What he told me I report plain and clear, as I hope for his health and happiness...

    What hour it was I cannot certainly tell; philosophers will agree more often than clocks; but it was between midday and one after noon. "Clumsy creature!" you say. "The poets are not content to describe sunrise and sunset, and now they even disturb the midday
    siesta. Will you thus neglect so good an hour?""
    Last edited by R_Baird; 04-07-2016 at 12:54 PM.

  10. #20
    Join Date
    Jan 2015
    Princeton archives are allowing access to JSTOR today. It gives me an opportunity to see the internecine nature of Roman elites with their Greek friends or supposed foes. It also allows us to see how much difficulty there is with academic analysis of who the people referred to are, what tribe or larger group they are identified with and against, and the poet Phaedrus whose identity seems unknown. The commentary about the location of Troy being unknown is a little far fetched but to have many sites where Trojan Wealth or the abodes of it's royals - that I can believe. The interest in Roman people is natural given that Rome was founded by those who fought in the Trojan War - as I see it.

    "Phaedrus The Fabulous


    In the Prologue to the third book of his fables, Phaedrus complains bitterly to a patron. Even though he, Phaedrus, was born like the Muses on the slopes of Olympus, and even though he has devoted his life not to the gathering of sweet lucre but to the study of poetry (docto labori), it is only with scorn that he is received among the company of poets (3 pr. 1-25). But then to business:

    Sed iam quodcumque fuerit, ut dixit Sinon, Ad regem cum Dardaniae perductus foret, Librum exarabo tertium Aesopi stilo, Honori et meritis dedicans ilium tuis. (3 pr. 27-30)

    But now, 'whatever may come of it' (as Sinon said when he was led before the King of Dardania {The DNN like Hercules}), I will trace out a third book with Aesop's pen, dedicating it to you in recognition of your honour and worth.

    The poet refers to the second book of the Aeneid (z.yjfi.), where the wretched Sinon addresses King Priam:

    'Cuneta equidem tibi, rex, fuerit quodcumque, fatebor / vera', 'I shall confess to you the whole truth, O king, come what may'.

    He then tells the Trojans a pack of lies, and persuades them to drag the Wooden Horse into their city. Troy falls. That Phaedrus drew attention to Sinon at Troy in the autobiographical Prologue to Book 3 is curious, in the light of what he offers in the Epilogue to the same Book 3. There he repeats his appeal to his patron, and concludes with complaint about the undeserved insults which he has suffered from unnamed detractors:

    Qui sint, requires; apparebunt tempore. Ego, quondam legi quam puer sententiam, 'Palam muttire plebeio piaculum est', Dum sanitas constabit, pulchre meminero. (3 ep. 32-5)

    'Who are they?' you ask. They will be seen in time. As for me, as long as my wits remain unshaken, I shall keep well in mind a maxim that I once read as a boy: 'It is sacrilege for a man of low birth to mutter in public'.

    Here the words quoted come from Ennius' now lost tragedy Telephus. A son of Hercules, Telephus was the ruler of Mysia who repelled the Greek expedition when it mistook his kingdom for Troy. In the battle he received an incurable wound from the spear of Achilles, and Apollo's oracle told him that only the thing that had hurt him could cure him. The Greek navy was blown back to Greece, so Telephus went to Agamemnon disguised as a beggar, kidnapped the infant Orestes, and threatened to kill him unless Agamemnon would help him. In fact, Agamemnon was more than eager to aid the kidnapper, since another oracle had informed him that the Greeks would never get to Troy without the guidance of Telephus. Achilles then, at his request, rubbed rust from his spear into Tele phus' wound, and it was cured. Telephus in return advised the Greeks of the proper course to steer for Troy, but he declined to join their expedition since his wife was the daughter of King Priam. The adage, that it is an offence requiring expiation for a common man to complain openly, was spoken by him in his beggarly disguise, presumably before the Greek kings gathered at Argos, or possibly by someone else rebuking him.1 Thus Phaedrus' third book ends as it begins, autobiographically, with allusion to a disguised Greek trickster, an apparent friend of Troy who would help to bring about the city's destruction. The two passages happen to quote, explicitly and unusually, lines from Rome's two great poets, Vergil and Ennius, and they happen to frame the middle of what would prove to be five books of poems. Both appear in autobiographical contexts. We know that Vergil's Sinon, the outcast, filthy and (in some versions of the story) self mutilated, was in reality of noble birth, first cousin to Ulysses, grandson of Autolycus the son of Hermes, and according to some himself son of Sisyphus, King of Corinth. We also know that Ennius' Telephus, the wounded beggar, clad in his squalid stola, was in reality a king, son of Hercules the son of Jupiter, and of Auge, daughter of Aleus, King of Tegea. Phaedrus' 'Phaedrus', the embittered, elderly Greek freedman, in each case appropriates to himself words spoken by them in deception. The Aesopean moral was not to take anything at face value: 'decipit frons prima multos' (4.2.5-6). Was Phaedrus too a prince in disguise?

    With the new millennium, Phaedrus and the ancient fable are ever more in fashion. Study of the fable, including the poems of Phaedrus, has been deservedly stimulated by the appearance of a massive history and taxonomy of the Graeco-Latin fable, by the second edition of an excellent brief introduction to the ancient fable, and by the first serious English translation of 'Aesop's Fables'. Phaedrus himself has received close attention in two important books and in a substantial commentary, not to mention a host of scholarly papers.2 Each of these works is valuable, but they all share the assumption that Phaedrus was who he seems to say he was, a Greek-born 'freedman writing to include himself in the high society of Latin letters', or 'a Greek freedman imbued with cynicism and stoicism, or moralism in general, a member of the more or less underground opposition to the empire', or an author whose work offers 'the promise of a rare glimpse, if through a glass darkly, into the mental furniture of the man in the ancient (Hellenistic) street'.3 But what if Phaedrus was not who he claimed to be?"

    This Phaedrus is not to be confused with the book of Plato addressing Socrates' teachings.

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