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Thread: Alexandria-Eschate

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Jan 2015


    It is amazing how we were told the Silk Route was not being used and thus Columbus or Marco Polo are great heroes, as I went to school. Truth - of course is far different. Columbus discovered nothing and had maps and guides to take him where he went spreading diseases which along with de Soto wiped out over 100 million people from cultures or races all over the world. Yes, I have proof they knew what they were doing! Marco Polo and his family were slavers.

    But we had fleeting myths about Alexander and his travels - and some fortresses have been discover along the Oxus River which fit the myths or legends. Will we find some of these fortresses were built over previous cities? Here is a little of the emerging proof from the American Institute of Archaeology. Macedonia itself was diminished in our history and we are finding it was more advanced and older than our trashed lies of history have said for millennia of Empire and Hellenizing. Philip of Macedon was the father of Alexander and he made deals or established a strong presence in much of Scythia where people who were his own forbears (the DNN and Sidhe) had long ago developed culture and technology including the metal working we now see Macedonians excelled in. The question I have, is did Alexander simply break his father's treaties? He did become a heralded god or Messiah for centuries after his demise, was this his plan or some other people using him to create religions like Christianity? There were many other Alexandrias and someone definitely knew the average people loved their conquering heroes. My predilection in history is to follow the money and power motivations.

    "The citadel at Kampyr-tepe today commands a view to the Oxus River in the horizon and Afghanistan beyond. It is one of several fortresses believed to have been established by Alexander at key crossing points along the river.

    Nowhere else on Alexander the Great's 22,000-mile, 13-year march from Greece to the Punjab did he encounter more difficulties than in what was known in ancient times as Sogdiana.

    In four quick years, beginning in 334 B.C., the young Macedonian king had won a succession of breathtaking victories, sweeping across Asia Minor into the heart of Persia. By 330, however, the Persian king Darius was dead and his murderer, Bessus, had usurped the throne and fled into the empire's easternmost province of Bactria-Sogdiana. Alexander and his men followed in pursuit, crossing the Hindu Kush and the brutal northern Afghanistan desert, eventually reaching the Oxus (modern Amu Darya).

    North of the Oxus--the ancient sources are unclear exactly where--the land of the Bactrians ended and that of the Sogdians began, and it was here in Sogdiana, encompassed today by most of Uzbekistan and a bit of Tajikistan, that Alexander's fortunes changed. He successfully pursued Bessus across the Oxus, capturing and executing him, and took the Persian crown for himself in 329. Alexander continued on to the northernmost reaches of his new empire on the Jaxartes (modern Syr Darya) River, where he attempted to seal off the border between the settled Sogdians and the less predictable, nomadic Scythians on the opposite bank by establishing a permanent walled city on the river called Alexandria-Eschate, or Alexandria the Farthermost.

    That act sparked a vicious rebellion by the Sogdians and their Scythian compatriots that was to mire Alexander in the region for three long years--more time than he would spend anywhere else on his campaign. His attempts to quell the rebellion would force him to build more fortresses in Bactria-Sogdiana than anywhere else on his route, and to bury more of his troops in its territory. Then there were the specific events said by historians like Arrian and Quintus Curtius to have taken place here: lethal ambushes led by Sogdian rebel leader Spitamenes and his crack Scythian horsemen; a brutal blizzard during which 2,000 of Alexander's troops froze in place "as if in conversation"; daring sieges of Sogdian strongholds by Macedonian "flying soldiers," who used iron tent pegs to scale sheer mountainsides; the murder of trusted commander Cleitus, killed by Alexander in a drunken fury; and finally, the emperor's marriage to a barbarian princess, an expedient political solution that would allow him to finally leave Sogdiana behind and follow his dream into India.

    Logic would follow that Alexander's troubles, resulting in the loss of thousands of men in a heavily garrisoned territory, would be a boon to modern scholars trying to piece together the inner workings of one of the world's greatest armies. But Sogdiana has still been left behind as archaeologists have forged ahead with Alexandrian sites from Greece and Egypt to Iran and India.

    So what exactly were archaeologists learning about Alexander's longest and bloodiest campaign? This last summer, I traveled to the region to find out for myself.

    Kristin M. Romey is deputy editor and senior writer at ARCHAEOLOGY."
    Last edited by R_Baird; 02-09-2016 at 02:38 PM.

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Jan 2015
    Would it surprise you if there was an elite family in Macedonia who also gave a son to Romans (other than Polybius who was in the house of Scipio - very important in the demise of Carthage) and made Empire beholding only to a family or three rather than SPQR or having to share the spoils with mere citizens? I refer to Julius Caesar and other names like Czar, Kaiser etc., in later eras. Yes, there were such families including that of Joseph of Arimathaea and the Ptolemies who Alexander put in charge of Egypt where another important city and Library of Knowledge bore his name. These families owned mines all over the world, and the Ptolemies once owned 20% of the Old World too. Joseph was the Roman Minister of Mines and he sat on the Sanhedrin over-seeing what happened to his son-in-law Yeshua (Jesus).

    "Alexandroupolis: Founded in 340 BC while Alexander was still a crown prince under his father Philip II, little else is known about this presumably short-lived settlement other than its location was likely near the modern Bulgarian city of Sandanski in the extreme southwest of the country.

    Alexandria Troas: Originally founded in 334 BC, this city on the east Aegean coast did not receive the Alexandria name until 301 BC after being renamed by Alexander’s successor in the region, Lysimachus. The suffix ‘Troas’ refers to the Troad, the historical name of the Biga Peninsula in Turkey at the southwest end of the Sea of Marmara not far from Troy. A prominent city in its time perhaps as large as 100 000 residents, Alexandria Troas was refounded as a major Roman administration centre in 12 BC and was even a possible candidate for becoming the new capital of the Roman Empire under Constantine (he, of course, would choose Byzantium). The city remains a titular see of the Catholic Church but fell into decline in the medieval era. Much of the city’s ruins were plundered for building material. Among the ruins still visible there today are an old bath/gymnasium complex and an ancient stadium discovered in the 1970s but not unearthed until 2009."

    Alexandria by the Latmus is also a Catholic See to this day, and I would expect many more such proofs of this sort are to be found. It was given back the name it had before it was conquered.

    Yes, indeed, a tangled web we weave!
    Last edited by R_Baird; 02-09-2016 at 02:55 PM.

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